How effective are available vaccines in protecting dogs from canine respiratory symptoms caused by Bordetella bronchiseptica (Bb)? The answer to that is unclear, concludes a recent literature review published in The Veterinary Journal.
The issues cited in the review:
- Many studies on the efficacy of vaccines for Bordetella bronchiseptica have flaws in experimental design.
- A failure to consider pen effect is a common flaw, and has implications for statistical analyses.
- Data from laboratory studies and field trials document efficacy of intranasal, parenteral and oral Bb vaccines in disease reduction.
- Optimal protocols to engender long-term immunological memory and extend longevity of clinical immunity remain unresolved.
The "pen effect" refers to experimental conditions other than the treatment or preventive being tested -- in this case, the vaccine -- such as all the animals being housed together, which can make the effect of the vaccine unclear.
Because respiratory disease is so common in shelter dogs, determining the efficacy of this and other vaccines designed to prevent it is a crucial component of infection control. While vaccination remains a critical strategy in protecting shelter populations, this review makes it clear more research is needed to determine which vaccine protocol can best accomplish that goal.
You can read the abstract and download or purchase the complete review at the link below.
John A. Ellis, How well do vaccines for Bordetella bronchiseptica work in dogs? A critical review of the literature 1977–2014, The Veterinary Journal, Volume 204, Issue 1, April 2015, Pages 5-16, ISSN 1090-0233, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2015.02.006.